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Manure, Life & the Bio-fuel Miracle of the Cow
Description of certain organic farming techniques used by farmers in various villages.
Sanjeevak or Amrut Paani
- 20 litres of Sanjeevak preparation Technique requires –
- 10litre Cow Urine – collected over 1-2 days.
- 10kg Cow Fresh Dung
- 1kg Jagerry [Gur]
Mix all these together in a bucket and keep covered with a cloth to avoid flies. The bucket should be stirred twice a day for 7 to 10 days. After 10 days Sanjeevak will be ready for use. It must be used in a dilution of 1:9 i.e. for 1litre of Sanjeevak 9 litres of water should be mixed to obtain 10 litres of solution.
Sanjeevak can be applied to plants as a spray or directly applied to the soil. In case of trees, a boundary basin of 2mx2m can be created and solution poured directly at this basin. Sanjeevak can easily be stored for 2 months in an earthen pot but must be kept moist and aerated.
Organic Farming Part I
This powerful potentate and pest repellent is an excellent compound for Organic farming. It has a multipurpose mix which is easily made in every farm and gives excellent results when applied to the soil or the crops. The word Panchgavya is a portmanteau consisting of the words ‘Panch’ meaning five and ‘Gavya’ meaning products from a cow. To make 20 litres of Panchgavya requires –
- Fresh cow dung – 5kg
- Fresh cow’s urine – 3 litres
- Cow’s milk – 2 litres
- Cow’s curd – 2 litres
- Cow’s ghee – 500 gms
First cow dung and cow ghee are thoroughly mixed for 20 minutes and kept in a mud pot or plastic drum (it is important not to use a metal container for this preparation). This mixture is to be kept for 4 days with stirring twice a day. The container must always be covered with a moist cloth to avoid flies laying eggs in it. On the 5th day all remaining elements are to be added and stirred well for 20 minutes. After 15 days (with stirring twice a day) Panchgavya is ready.
In addition to the 5 elements following can also be added for additional benefits if the materials are available –
- Jaggery -500gms
- Ripe Banana – 12 pieces
- Tender Coconut water – 3 litres
- Honey – 500gms
Panchgavya is to be applied in a 2-10% solution e.g. for 10 litres of water 200ml of panchgavya can be used for spraying directly on plants or if applied to soil, 1litre of panchgavya is stirred with 10 litres of water.
It can be applied once in 15 days on all kinds of crops. Seeds can be soaked for 1 hour in 1% solution before sowing and stem cuttings for plantations can be soaked in 1% solution overnight.
Organic Farming Part II
‘Cow dung to biogas’
Cow Pat Pit
Cow Pat Pit of CPP is a highly specialized composting method which uses Fresh Cow Dung and biodynamic preparations to form an effective potentate. The quality of CPP depends of the quality of inputs used and the methodology adopted for making the compost. It is highly advised that cow dung be used from a lactating cow which has been fed organic grass only e.g. fodder from open or forest field of grass collected from own farm where no chemical inputs have been used. Preparation of CPP requires –
- A pit dug to the dimensions of 3feet width, 2 feet length and 1 feet depth. Multiple pits can be dug width to width or length to length.
- Bricks to line the sides of the pits
- BD Preparation Kit 502-507 made available by SJI through the RNR centre at Thimpu.
- Shaded ventilated area where the pits will be kept to prevent water logging during monsoons or harsh sun during summers.
- 60kg cow fresh dung per pit or watered cow dung in case it is hard
- 200 grams of powdered egg shells – preferably roasted on a covered vessel or oven for 10 minutes.
- 200 grams of powdered basalt dust from a quarry OR bore/tube well soil OR Silt from river beds as a last option
The preparation requires kneading the cow dung for 10 minutes to aerate it. Mix the powdered egg shells and basalt and continue kneading. While there is no limit to the time to knead, between 10 minutes to an hour should be enough. Drop this mixture into the pit and layer it such that it is one and half brick deep.
Organic Farming Part III
‘Organic pesticide and fungicide’
Six holes are made into this dung mixture in pit and in each hole 3 sets of BD preps are inserted i.e. in one of the holes 3 sets of BD 502, in second hole 3 sets of BD 503 and so on. The holes are then covered with the dung. One set is about 1 gram so about 3 grams of each prep in each hole is enough.
Take a 1 litre water bottle with about half a litre of water and add 1 set of BD 507 solution to it. Shake the bottle horizontally for about 10 minutes. Add half of this water to the final hole and remaining half to the bricks, gunny bag and on top of the layer. Alternately half of the BD 507 can be added directly to the last hole and remaining mixed in the bottle. Place a wet jute sack on top of this pit to keep it covered and moist.
Leave this for a month and then gently aerate it from the top with a fork in the 5th week. From 6th week onwards turn the compost every week to speed up breakdown. CPP will be ready in 3 to 5 months depending on climatic conditions.
1 pit with 60 kg of cow dung yields about 35-40kg of CPP. The application thumb rule is 1kg per acre. Some uses are –
1kg CPP in 40 litres of water is stirred for 10 minutes and strained. The solution can be sprayed directly on the plants and trees or applied directly to the soil.
Make a CPP paste and apply to trees to stop bleeding
Dip roots, stem and seeds in a CPP solution for 1 hour before sowing
CPP can be used as inoculants in other compost heaps of vermicompost also. Usage remains the same 1kg CPP in 40 litres of water and added to compost heaps by making holes on them.